IN THE BACK GROUND

v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
.shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);}

Normal
0

false
false
false

EN-US
X-NONE
X-NONE

/* Style Definitions */
table.MsoNormalTable
{mso-style-name:”Table Normal”;
mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;
mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;
mso-style-noshow:yes;
mso-style-priority:99;
mso-style-parent:””;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;
mso-para-margin:0in;
mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;
mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:”Calibri”,”sans-serif”;}

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background Information

Injustice against children is the most egregious violation of international human rights law. Despite over 190 countries ratifying the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) – which sets forth a wide range of provisions that encompass civil rights and freedoms, family environment, basic health and welfare, education, leisure and cultural activities, and special protection – abuse of children remains a widespread problem globally. The abuses and transgressions vary from region to region but in addition to the more publicized issues like street children, physical and sexual exploitation, child soldiers, and the ravaging effects of HIV & AIDS are the all-too-common struggles against disease, hardship, and family or social traditions that compromise children’s humanity or subject them to physical and emotional suffering.

Kenya, through the Children Act (2005) has domesticated the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Act provides for the protection and safeguarding of the rights of children in the country. The legal framework for the protection of the rights of the children was anchored in the new constitution further strengthening it. Chapter four of the constitution, in article 53 provides for the following rights of the child; the right to free compulsory basic education, to basic nutrition, shelter and healthcare, to be protected from abuse, neglect, harmful cultural practices, all forms of violence, inhuman treatment and punishment, and hazardous or exploitative labor. Further, the article provides for the right of the child to parental care and protection.

In spite of the strong legal framework and instruments the reality for much of Kenya is that enforcement remains poor meaning that the rights of the children remain unprotected. Even in areas that are easily accessible lack of enforcement is a big problem. There is need to change attitudes amongst communities and people in the government circles. Child rights need to be actively respected rather than simply acknowledged. In many parts of the country childhood is viewed as some kind of probation period before becoming an adult instead of seeing a child as an individual with dignity who has all the rights of a full human being.

Children in Trans-Nzoia – the target of this study – face a whole litany of challenges, ranging from lack of access to education, domestic abuse, commercial exploitation, drug abuse, HIV and AIDS, early and forced marriages, female genital mutilation, and child labour. One common factor common to all the children who suffer these debilitating injustices is poverty. The poverty rate in Trans-Nzoia stands at 50.2% according to Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2009). This perverse condition makes it impossible for households to meet those needs that are basic rights of children.

The status of the rights of women is relatively low in Trans-Nzoia. This is important because children rights are intimately tied to those of women. Realizing the rights and equality of women is not only a core development goal in itself, but it is also the key to survival and development of children and to building healthy families and communities. Starting even before birth, a child’s health and development prospects are closely linked with the mother’s health and socio-economic status.

The number of children made vulnerable by HIV & AIDS (OVCs) in Trans-Nzoia is high. Currently HIV prevalence rate stands at 7.4% up from 5.9% in 2003 (KDHS 2009). As the disease affects people in their most productive age (15-49years), the impact has been severe on the family and social fabric leaving many children without love and nurture of their parents. These children find themselves denied the joys of childhood and instead bear the burdens and responsibilities of adults.

Trans-Nzoia has also been scene of tribal clashes pitting the Pokot, Luhya Marakwet and Sabaots communities against each other in bloody violence that has left many dead and displaced tens of thousands. Disruption and chaos caused by the conflict has had a huge negative impact on children including interruption of school with many children ending up in streets or forced into early marriages or to work as child laborers.  

Child labour is very prevalent in the region, children work to supplement the meager family income denying them some of their basic rights as children such as the right to education, to freedom from abuse, and to proper health care. It is estimated that over 14,000 children in Trans-Nzoia are illegally employed.

1.2 Problem/Issues Definition

From the foregoing it is clear that the challeges and issues that contribute to poor status of the rights of the child in Trans-Nzoia are many and varried. Given the TRACSEN’s scope of work (as per the project documet) the survey will look at the following specific and concrete issues that are in need of advocacy.

Table 1.1: Issues in Need of Advocacy.

Issue

Definition

Domestic abuse

The physical, sexual or emotional abuse of children by family members or family friends

HIV & AIDS

Those suffering the consequences of AIDS or HIV infection or caring for AIDS sufferers

Commercial Exploitation

Exploitation of children for economic gain, such as through bonded labour, prostitution and trafficking

Drugs and addiction

The unhealthy use of alcohol and drugs (both medical and recreational)including general and addiction-based usage

Institutionalisation

The housing or placement of children within environments where their needs are not adequately. The housing or placement of children in where carers do not have sufficient time or inclination to help the children in their care

Orphans & child-headed households

Children who have lost or been estranged from their parents. Children who now carry parental responsibilities

Prejudice

Children who suffer from forced cultural practices (e.g. forced marriages , female circumcision etc) children who experience persecution because of their experiences/beliefs

Displacement

Children who have been displaced within their own country (IDPs)or to another country as a result of natural or human disaster or political policy

Street children

Children who live on the streets, work on the streets or retreat to the streets to escape unhappy homes.

Unborn children at risk

The unborn foetus

War

Children who have been recruited as child soldiers or who are suffering trauma as a result of war experiences.

 

 

 

1.3 Objectives of the Survey

Children in Trans-Nzoia County are faced with a myriad of problems that deny them the right to enjoy their childhood and the love and nurture from their parents and the society in general. These problems include child labour, physical, emotional and sexual abuse among others. The overarching goal of this baseline survey is to document the status of the rights of the child in Trans-Nzoia County with the aim of developing appropriate responses leading to diminishment of child abuse cases and establishing benchmarks and criterion for monitoring and evaluating implementation of measures to address these issues.

The specific objectives include:-

1         Determine/verify the scope (number and geographical spread) of the children who suffer from, or are, at risk of issues defined in section 1.2.

2         Asses, knowledge, attitudes and perceptions among community members and other stakeholders on children rights and issues.

3         Identify gaps in the implementation of the national policy and legal frameworks on the rights of children in the Trans-Nzoia County.

2. SURVEY AREA

2.1 Location and area

Trans Nzoia County is located in the western region of Kenya in the North Rift. The county border Uganda to the west, Bungoma and Lugari to the south west, West Pokot to the north, Marakwet to the East and Uasin Gishu to the Southeast.  The area is fertile and well watered with an average annual precipitation of 1242mm. The area’s altitude reaches 2000 metres above sea level and averages 1900 metres above sea level. Trans-Nzoia County is divided into 4 administrative districts and 9 divisions covering an area of 2,487.3 square kilometres 

2.2 Population

According to the 2009 census Trans-Nzoia County has a population of 818,757 million – 407,172 male and 411,585 female – and an annualpopulation growth rate of 5.4%. Sixty one percent of the population in the county is below 18 years and therefore falls within Kenya’s legal definition of a child. About twenty percent (20.4%) of the population in Trans-Nzoia County is urban as compared to 32.3% nationally. The high population growth among communities in the county is attributed to low literacy levels and to cultural practices of having many children for security in the old age. The population density in the county averages 187 people per square kilometers however this population is distributed unevenly with some areas having very high densities while other are thinly populated

Table 2.1: Male and Female by age group

Age

Female

Male

0-10

132,442

137,718

10-20

100,906

102,567

20-30

72,111

65,377

30-40

43,133

43,537

40-50

26,985

25,661

50-60

16,124

16,220

60-70

8,700

8,692

70-80

4,884

4,654

80+

3,201

2,627

 

 

2.3 Climate

Trans -Nzoia County lies on a highland equatorial climate, and as such it receives adequate rainfall. The average rainfall is over 1,500 mm and is quite reliable, helping to support agricultural activities.

2.4 The Community

Trans-Nzoia County is cosmopolitan being inhabited by almost all communities. Communities in Trans-Nzoia are Bukusu 50%, Kalenjin 30%, Kikuyu 20%, Kisii 5% and other tribes 15 percent. The Bukusu, Kikuyu and Kisii are Bantu ethnic groups while the Kalenjin are a nilotic ethnic group. Ethnic rivalries and tension in the county has on certain occasion resulted to violence for example in 1992, 1997, and 2007. 

2.5 Economic activities

Trans-Nzoia is a rich agricultural area and together with the rest of the north rift region is referred to us Kenya’s bread basket. As a result, agriculture and agri-businesses is the mainstay of the county’s economy. The county’s agricultural produce include maize, beans, wheat as well as animal products such beef, milk and poultry.

3. DESIGN AND METHODS

3.1    Design and Sampling

The survey will use several methods to collect information. These methods will include documentation review; key informant interviews and focus group discussion with chiefs and assistant chiefs, church leaders and officers in government departments dealing children issues; interviews with institutions and organisations in the region that are involved in childcare; interviews with a representative sample of primary and secondary school head teachers; and interviews with a representative sample of social and community workers in the county.

At the end of data collection a consultative workshop will be held at the ground with representatives from all identified stakeholders to present preliminary findings to them and pick their minds on possible solution to the issues identified as well as map the way forward.

3.2 Survey implementation

Two field teams each consisting of 3 primary data collectors (interviewers) and 1 supervisor will conduct fieldwork over a period of 2 weeks during the month of October. Teams undergo a brief training session to help them familiarise with the survey objectives and methods as well as work out logistical issues. Data collection teams will be constantly supervised by the consultant and a representative of TRACSEN. The supervision team will visit with field teams to perform quality checks on the whole process and help address challenges to data collection.

3.3 Data Processing, Analysis and Reporting

Processing and analysis of data will be done using Statistical Package for Social and Studies (SPSS). where applicable. Open ended questions will be analysed manually by the researchers and then codified for entry into SPSS. All the interview sessions and the focus group discussions will be recorded to ensure that all information is recorded for later reviewing. The analysis, findings and the recommendations arrived at will then be presented in a report to all the stake holders.

 

 

 

Survey Implementation Schedule

WEEK

ACTIVITY

One
PREPARATION
  • General logistics
  • Preparing and testing survey tools
  • Printing of questionnaires and interview guides
  • Reconnaissance tour to streamline logistics.
  • Training of data collectors (enumerators)

Two

FIELD WORK

  • Key informants interviews
  • FGD’s
  • Data analysis

Three

FIELD WORK

  • Key informants interviews
  • FGD’s
  • Data analysis

Four

REPORTING

  • Preliminary report writing
  • Presentation of results  to stakeholders
  • Preparation of final report
  • Publication of final report

 

 


 

APPENDIX 1: SURVEY TOOLS

Interview Guide for District Children Officers/CSOs Dealing with children rights

Name of Officer

District

No

Question

Answer

1

Please tell me what your department does and its role in protecting the rights of the child?

 

2

What challenges do you face in executing this mandate?

 

3

I would like to know some of the issues or challenges that children face that compromise their humanity or subject them to physical and/or emotional suffering?

List as many as possible then ask for clarification for each of the item listed

 

4

Have you in your work in this area come across cultural or social traditions that threaten children or compromise their rights?

Please explain

 

5

How have the conflicts in Trans-Nzoia impacted on children?

 

6

What else needs to be done for full protection and realisation of the rights of the child?

 

 

Interview Guide for Constituency AIDS Control Coordinators  

Name of Officer

Constituency

No

Question

Answer

1

What is the HIV & AIDS situation in this constituency?

Prevalence rate, No. of PLWHAs, Stigma etc.

 

2

I would like to know the prevalence of Mother-to-child-transmission. And what factors could be contributing to the prevalence.

Probe for things like

use of TBAs

Lack of awareness

Unavailability of ARVs

 

3

What is the number of children orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV & AIDS?

 

4

What challenges in your experience do you think these children face?

 

5

What do you think needs to be done to address the challenges in identified above?

 

 

Interview Guide For Children Magistrate And The Police childen and gender desk   

Name of Officer

Area:

No

Question

Answer

1

What is the nature of cases that are reported/adjudicated upon here?

%AGE OF CASES OF

Domestic abuse

Sexual molestation/abuse

Abandonment/Lost children

Parents not taking children to school

Commercial exploitation/child labour

 

2

What has been the trend over the last 12 months?

Please give explanation for these trends

 

3

Do you face any challenges in enforcing the rights of the child?

If yes please explain

 

4

What do you think needs to be done for the rights of the child to be actively protected?

 

 

 

Interview Guide for Area Education Officers and teachers    

Name of teacher

School:

Location

Division

District

No

Question

Answer

1

How many children are in this school/area?

 

No. of boy?

No. of girls?

 

2

Are there any challenges that this school/area faces in terms of providing education?

List all the challenges and give explanations for each?

 

3

How would you categorise the rate of the absenteeism in this school/area

Categories are (low, medium, high)

 

4

Who are most likely to be absent? (boys or girls)

 

4

Please give me the reason for the rate of absenteeism given above?

Probe whether this is related to child labour etc. What time of the year is the problem most acute?

 

5

How would you categorise the school drop out rate in this school/area among

A)     Girls

B)      boys

Categories are (low, medium, high)

 

6

At what class/stage is the drop out rate most prevalent?

 

7.

What do you think are the reasons for this?

 

8.

I would like to know what other challenges are faced by children in this area?

 

9

What do you think can be done to make the situation better for children?

 

 

Interview Guide For Chiefs and religious leaders

Name

Location

Division

District

No

Question

Answer

1

I would like to know some of the issues or challenges that children face in this location that compromise their humanity or subject them to physical and/or emotional suffering?

List as many as possible then ask for clarification for each of the item listed

 

 

2

Please tell me what your office is doing to address the issues?

 

3

When cases of child abuse or neglect are reported to your office what do you think is the right cause of action to take?

Probe for such things like local arbitration which further compromise the rights of the child

 

4

What do you think needs to be done to improve the rights of the children in this location?

 

 

 

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s